|Home > South-East Asia >> Thailand|
Thai Electoral rules aimed to fragment political parties
Ugly Truth Thailand - October 14, 2018
As in previous Thai elections, there will be MPs elected directly to various constituencies and also MPs elected from national votes for party lists. In other countries, such formulae are used to introduce proportional representation.
But in Thailand the number of Party List MPs will be determined by a bizarre equation designed primarily to stop a popular party, especially "Pua Thai", from achieving a majority in parliament. The formula means that more Party List MPs will be allocated to parties which fail to gain many Constituency MPs and those that win in many constituencies will have a reduced number of Party List seats. This would give added MPs to smaller parties such as the pro-military "Democrat Party" at the expense of a party like Taksin Shinawat's "Pua Thai Party".
Unlike Taksin's parties, the Democrat Party has never won a majority in parliament and it worked hand in glove with the military after Taksin's parties were overthrown in military and judicial coups. Taksin's Thai Rak Thai Party won a number of general elections due to its pro-poor and modernising policies, such as universal health care and job creation and poverty reduction schemes in the countryside. The party had to change its name to "Palang Prachachon" and then "Pua Thai" after the parties were dissolved by pro-military courts. "Pua Thai" means "for Thais".
The junta's election formula for allocating MPs is also designed to try to make sure that Thailand goes back to having a string of weak coalition governments where different parties fight for a place at the government feeding trough. A weak elected coalition government would be easier for the military to manipulate.
However, as they say, "every force has an equal and opposite reaction". Politicians allied to Taksin have created 2 sister parties; "Pua Tum Party" ("for justice/virtuousness") and "Pua Chart Party" ("for the nation"). Taksin's allies hope that this will give the pro-Taksin coalition of 3 parties an increased number of MPs compared to if they all stood in the elections under a single Pua Thai banner.
Pua Tum has also been set up in case the pro-junta courts decide to dissolve Pua Thai on some spurious grounds. Pua Thai MPs could then migrate to the party.
Pua Chart Thai has been set up by a group of former Red Shirts. The "The Prachachart Party", set up by former Thai Rak Thai Muslim politicians in the South, might also support a Pua Thai government.
No doubt there are many other machinations and deals, involving other politicians, going on behind the scenes.
Of course, we must also not forget that whoever wins the election will be severely constrained by the junta's 20 year National Strategy and its appointees in the Senate and the judiciary.